Integration, Segregation and the Early Modern Plague Hospital

This is the first of a ‘mini-series’ of papers on integration and segregation, leading up to the next INHH Conference on the same theme in Dubrovnik April 2015.  It is intended that these short papers will help to stimulate debate and discussion before the conference, and to spark a wider interest in hospital history. If you would like to submit your own mini-paper to be published on this site, please get in contact!




Dr Jane Stevens Crawshaw (Oxford Brookes): ‘Integration, Segregation and the Early Modern Plague Hospital’.


Of all of the things patients might have expected to receive within an early modern plague hospital, news probably did not come high up the list.  Few institutions have been more strongly associated with segregation; many early modern writers (and modern historians) stress the social breakdown that ensued during plague epidemics in early modern Europe and have characterised plague hospitals as sites within which infection spread quickly and the sick were abandoned to their fate.

Plague Hospital

This account of the death of Doge Nicolò da Ponte in 1585 and subsequent election of Pasquale Cicogna was written on the wall of the large warehouse (the tezon grande) on the island of the lazaretto nuovo.  When the warehouse was built in 1561 it was one of the largest buildings in Venice and its purpose was to accommodate vast quantities of merchandise on the island which housed one of Venice’s two plague hospitals.

The graffiti reminds the historians of the significance of channels of commerce and communication in relation to the history of the plague hospitals.  These hospitals played a vital role in the Republic’s networks of maritime trade, public health and charitable care.  Surviving sources illustrate that Venetian Health Officers attempted to balance both integration and segregation in their administration of these hospitals in order to bring about an improvement in health across a number of different spheres, principally both medical and economic.   As a result, links between patients and their communities were not severed.  Although underplayed in literary sources, this element of the hospitals’ history is visible in archival sources as well as surviving building structures.  This example of early modern graffiti, therefore, has much to say to historians today.

Health Systems before Welfare States

By Guest Blogger, and INHH Board Member, Professor Barry Doyle

Cities in Europe

The programme has been announced for the European Association of Urban Historians (EAUH) Conference in Lisbon September 2014. This extensive event will include papers from over 500 participants from across Europe, North America and Australasia. Among the main sessions will be a panel headed by INHH Board member, Barry Doyle of the University of Huddersfield and his co-organiser Fritz Dross of Magdeburg, a well-known member of the Network. Their session will address the issue of Health Systems before Welfare States seeking to explore how health care provision, especially at an institutional level, changed in urban areas in the 150 years before the full scale development of centralized (and often nationalized) medical systems in the aftermath of the Second World War.

Following an excellent response to the call for papers we have been able to select a very strong panel which examines a number of important themes from industrial disability and the policing of prostitutes through the bases of urban public health to the transformation of hospital provision in a number of Europe’s important urban centres.

Health care for specific groups will be considered by Anne Borsay in a paper drawing on her coalfield disability project while Jörg Vögele and Hideharu Umehara address the extent to which cities made children healthy in an assessment of public health provision for the young in turn of the century Dusseldorf. Two papers will examine the role of the medical profession in urban settings. Mari Tanninen will assess medical practitioners’ participation as supporters and critics of regulated prostitution in late nineteenth century Vienna and Michael Toyka-Seid the involvement of local medical men in the development of an urban health care system in the small but important English provincial city of Durham. The concerns of these individuals and activist groups will be contrasted with those of nationwide institutions including central government, municipalities, insurance schemes and religious organisations. Thus, Bernard Harris will explore the financial basis for English urban sanitary reform, 1871-1914 and Margarita Vilar-Rodríguez and Jerònia Pons-Pons’ paper considers the way the Franco regime managed the construction of a network of public hospitals and outpatient clinics between 1940 and 1960.

The centrality of a mixed economy of welfare in the early twentieth century across Europe will be a recurrent theme in the session. It is apparent in Franco’s Spain, self-governing Ulster and Francophone Belgium with the Catholic church central to voluntary provision in each country. Sean Lucey’s presentation demonstrates the centrality of religion to the shaping of public health policy in the divided city of Belfast
between the wars while Hendrik Moeys’ consideration of the development of domiciliary and institutional care at a local level in Ghent, Brussels and Liège shows that much provision depended heavily on the contribution of religious orders and Catholic charities. In a similar vein, Lydia Sapounaki-Drakaki and Maria-Luiza Tzoya Moatsou are to investigate the way local actors in the Greek port of Piraeus struggled to meet their obligation to deliver adequate services, paying particular attention to the role of elite women in the management of a mixed system.

While hospitals will feature in many of the papers in the session those by Alexandra-Kathrin Stanislaw-Kemenah and Valeria Rainoldi deal specifically with the transformation of institutions in the nineteenth century. In a paper to be delivered in French, Stanislaw-Kemenah looks inside the hospital to assess the role of the clinic, clinician and patient in changing institutional care in Dresden while Rainoldi will analyse the role of donations in the modernizing provision of the Italian city of Verona.

Ospedale Infantile Alessandri, Verona

Ospedale Infantile Alessandri, Verona

We are very pleased to have the opportunity to present such a diverse panel showcasing the important new work taking place in health, and especially hospital, history across Europe. Scholars from the UK, Ireland, Germany, Spain, Greece, Belgium, Poland, Italy and Finland will be contributing papers covering seven different countries demonstrating both the similarities and differences which shaped their health care systems before the arrival of the welfare state.



St Thomas’ Hospital, London


Credit: Dazeley.

St Thomas’s is one of London’s great medieval hospitals, and evolved out of the hospital of the Priory of St Mary Overie, now Southwark Cathedral. In 1215 a new hospital was established as separate from St Mary with the Prior and canons of  St Mary, and it continued to be a religious foundation until the reign of Henry VIII when it was closed in 1540 during the dissolution of the monasteries. It was reopened in the reign of Edward VI  in 1552 on the same site in Southwark and remains a working London hospital today, though it moved from it’s original Southwark site to Lambeth in the 1860s.

In the very late 17th century, during a period of growth and renovation, St Thomas’s Hospital’s governors made the decision to demolish the old church of St Thomas, due to it being in a poor state and suffering some subsidence, and to build a new church on the same site. The Old Operating Theatre Museum is situated in the roof spaces of that new church, which was built between 1700 and 1703. Extensive references to the monthly process of the rebuild, including details of the fate of the materials from the old church, the fittings for the new interior and the debates about the timber to be used in the roof, can be found in the minutes of the court of Governors and shorter summaries of the process in Benjamin Golding’s Historical Account of St Thomas’s Hospital (1819). The build was directed by master mason and governor Thomas Cartwright.

Counter Credit Dazeley

Credit: Dazeley.

The church was a parish church, with a very small local parish, but it was also part of the complex of the hospital,  and it seems probable that from the time of it’s completion in around 1703, the apothecary of the hospital used the dark dry roof spaces where the museum is now found as a storage garret for the herbs used to make the medicines of the hospital. When the spaces were rediscovered in the late fifties, poppy heads were discovered scattered on the floor. Preserved with varnish in the 50s, some of these are still on display in the museum today.

Table Credit Dazeley

Credit: Dazeley.

In the early 1820s, half of the roof space over the church was converted into a new operating theatre for the use of the surgeons and their medical students. In the previous arrangement, operations on female patients had been taking part in a space at the end of the adjoining ward block. This situation was not suitable for the other patients, nor was it adequate to contain the growing audience made up of the medical pupils of the United Borough Hospital schools of Guy’s and St Thomas’s. The space created in the roof of the church provided the room to accommodate the audience and to perform the operations in, and the light the surgeons needed, from the large skylight in the roof.

Capital surgery was carried out in theatre for roughly 40 years, between 1821 and 1862. The space witnessed the advent of anaesthesia in the 1840s but not the development of antiseptic surgery.

St Thomas’s Hospital left it’s ancient home in Southwark in 1862 and began the move to it’s current home on the banks of the Thames in Lambeth. The theatre lay undisturbed for around 100 years before it was rediscovered in the late 1950s by the distinguished heart surgeon Lord Brock, and a period of restoration was undertaken. The museum, with a basic collection and it’s first simple displays, opened to visitors in 1962.

Today, the Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret, accessed from a spiral staircase in the bell tower of St Thomas’s Church, has 40,000 visitors a year. Today, the growing displays feature a large selection of surgical instruments, herbs, pill making equipment and pharmaceutical glass and pathology specimens and the museum has a lively events and education programme. The museum is devoted to telling the story of St Thomas’s Hospital, the church and the medical use of the roof spaces, and the development of materia medica and pharmacy, anatomy and surgery, and medical education over the 160 year period in which the spaces were in use by St Thomas’s.

Julie Mathias, The Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret, London

New Museum Installation


The St John's Brugge Sint-Janshospitaal Bruges (Belgium) has recently opened a new museum installation: medical history of the Sint-Janshospitaal Bruges, from its origin till the 19th century. The museum is a cultural-historical museum that wants to show the equal importance of medical and spiritual care.

The Museumbulletin/musea Brugge has recently published an article on this new museological point of view (Sibylla Goegebuer, Het Sint-Janshospitaal, een continuïteitsverhaal, een evenwichtsoefening, Museumbulletin 2, 33e jaargang, april-juni 2013).

Sibylla Goegebuer

Here are some pictures from the new exhibition:

St Johns Exhibition 1 St Johns Exhibition 2 St Johns Exhibition 3

New Publication: Poumons d’acier, coeurs d’or

Comment: Hospitium, the Belgian Historical Society of hospitals and social action, has published a new book (in French and Dutch) called ‘Poumons d’acier, coeurs d’or‘. It is a unique work, an inventory of all medical and social collections in the Benelux.

You will discover more than 40 institutions, all open to the public, with medical, pharmaceutical and social heritage. These institutions cover almost all historical periods starting from the middle ages and relate to the three Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands). Hospitium aims to arouse the interest of a large audience for medical history. In addition, this book is an invitation to visit these museums and collections.

The authors are Patrick Allegaert and Vincent Van Roy. The book is published by Garant.

More information  :

Publication News


[Details are supplied by the author: Dr Esther Diana]

Publication: Esther Diana, Santa Maria Nuova, ospedale dei Fiorentini : architettura ed assistenza nella Firenze tra Settecento e Novecento (Florence, 2012)

The hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence is among the oldest hospitals in Europe.

Established in 1288 in several ‘houses’ owned by Folco Portinari, over the centuries it has expanded its structure in accordance with a cruciform model of sudden success and propagation. But if the architectural history of the hospital until 1700 is well known, nothing has been investigated in the process of modernization that the hospital put in action the late eighteenth century.

This volume explores not only the events directly relevant to architectural changes, but also those advances in medicine, medical technology, social relationships between health professionals and patients – not least the relationship between the city and the complex nosocomial – who were the real stars of  arrangement of modern hospital.